No smoking

Smoking at Hull Royal Infirmary and Castle Hill Hospital has been banned completely. Patients, visitors and staff are not allowed to smoke in the hospitals’ buildings, grounds or car-parks.

The shelter at the entrance to Hull Royal Infirmary has been removed to discourage smokers from gathering there.

Free nicotine replacement is offered to patients who smoke throughout their hospital stay.

Security staff are enforcing the policy by kindly asking smokers to extinguish cigarettes or to move off the hospital site completely.

The ban is causing much controversy and mixed opinions.

smoking ban

Some smokers choose to ignore the ban, especially in adverse weather conditions:

There has been furhter controversy following the decision to allow patients to use e-cigarettes in hospital grounds but not the staff.

An NHS trust spokeswoman said: “The decision not to allow staff to vape on hospital premises was taken in order to maintain a professional image for the Trust and the people who represent it.

“Staff are required to go off site if they wish to vape. Alternatively, staff are able to access other alternatives to smoking, such as patches or gum, with the help of the Stop Smoking Team.”

OUTLAWED: Staff at Hull Royal Infirmary, inset, and Castle Hill Hospital are banned from using e-cigarettes

Radio Wrap

A radio wrap is a very simple package, in that it includes a script, written and recorded by a reporter and will feature a clip of audio, taken from an interview with someone else. The clip is fitted into the middle of the script, so in effect, the reporter ‘wraps’ their voice around the audio clip.

I took an interview that I had done on the riots in Rotterdam with a Dutch national. I edited the interview to a 22 seconds clip using Audacity and wrote a three par cue and ending. I then recorded my introduction and summary, then added it to the clip to make a wrap for radio.

In order to post it to this blog I published it on Soundcloud and used the embed code.

I did a second interview on Brexit with a retired gentleman from Hornsea. I used the audio recorder on my phone which records in MPEG-4 format so I then had to convert the files to WAV in order to edit with Audacity.

From the interview I produced the following wrap:

Woodward and Berntein-The Watergate Crisis.

This week  in CATS we talked about Woodward and Bernstein’s coverage of the Watergate Crisis. To summarise the scandal and its socio-political impacts I have referred to Charlotte Wilson’s  presentation:

On June 17, 1972, 5 burglars were arrested in the Watergate building in Washington DC.
They were caught trying to bug phone wires and steal secret government documents.
The story intrigued two reporters, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein who began investigating the story.
The scandal led to many Americans questioning their leadership and numerous government investigations were carried out. It made people think more critically about politics and changed the way people thought about their government and the roles of journalists in society.
Woodward and Bernstein gained their journalistic fame through the Watergate scandal and helped the Washington Post become the bestselling newspaper at the time. It set the bar high for future journalists working in investigative journalism.

Woodward and Bernstein Investigation
“It is the single most spectacular act of serious journalism in the 20th century.”
it influenced a generation of journalists.

Socio-political effects:
Short Term
Resignation of President Nixon
69 government officials were charged and 48 were found guilty
Loss of seats for Republicans in 1974 elections
Long Term
Trust in politicians decreased
New interest for journalism
Rise in investigative journalism
The story was gripping at the time, making young people think about their careers, attracting people to the idea that journalism can really make a difference. By the 1990s, there were a whole generation of journalists producing some of the best work newspapers had ever done. This time was described as the ‘golden age of newspapers’ and traced back many journalist’s careers paths beginning from the Watergate

This case illustrates the importance of investigative journalism and the freedom of the press. It leads us to  question whether corruption on such a huge political scale would or could be uncovered and revealed by the press today. At the time of the Watergate Crisis huge pressure was being put on the Washington Post to try to dissuade them from publishing the story. It was only through the dogged determination of the investigative journalists and the willingness of the press to stand by them that enabled the US government to be held to account.

Personally, I don’t believe that the exposure of a story of such magnitude would happen today. Mainly  because of the financial implications. The cost of funding the investigation and also the risk of losing revenue from advertising and political party allegiance. Moreover, news reporting has become far more superficial with the importance of getting news out there as fast as possible.

Would the costs of exposing a scandal be worth the time and effort that is needed? I would like to hope there is still a future for serious investigative journalism but it is becoming increasingly difficult in a society where celebrities sharing their breakfast menu is the latest ‘news’.





Court Orders

Court orders are restrictions on what is allowed to be reported in a case:

  • Section 39 Orders-ban the press reporting the name. address, school or any other particulars of a child who appears in court as a defendant. victim or witness.
  • Anonymity orders–Victims of sex offences have automatic anonymity for life.
  • Section 4 Orders- These are made by the court to postpone reporting. They are used to ban us from printing one trial when another trial involving the same people is imminent.
  • Section 2 Orders- These give anonymity to defendants or victims in cases of blackmail and cases of national security. It bans the name, address and any particulars being published.

Challenging Court Orders

All these orders can be used to ban us from reporting elements of cases but the press has the right to challenge these orders.

In 2000 in the High Court Lord Bingham said there was nothing to stop magistrates from hearing a representative of the press and a reporter could ‘save the court from falling into error.

Sometimes the court make illegal orders and you have to challenge them to enable you to a report a case. These can include putting section 39 orders on dead children and adults.

Even if a reporting restriction is invalid it must be obeyed unless the court amends or lifts them.’

In the Court of Appeal in 2011 Lord Neuberger said: “Court hearings should take place in public and should be freely reported unless justice can’t be done on that basis in the particular case and in that event the court should ensure that the restrictions on access and reporting are the minimum necessary to enable justice to be done in that case.”

Section 11 orders

  • These give anonymity to defendants or victims, usually in cased of blackmail and cases of national security . It bans the name, address and any particulars being published indefinitely.
  • A Section 11 order cannot be made if the name or the matter has already been mentioned in public proceedings.
  • You can argue it is in the public interest to name a defendant.
  • The judicial College guidance says banning publication of a defendant’s address may wrongly identify someone unconnected with the case.
  • In 2000 the Grimsby Telegraph published a story on Gary Allen who was acquitted of murdering a Hull prostitute saying he lived in their path despite his address being withheld. They were able to do this because the Act stated the order only bans publication of matters in connection with the proceedings.
  • Courts try and use the order to protect defendant’s children but this is not allowed.

Section 39 orders

  1. They ban the press reporting the name, school or any other particulars of a child who appears in court as a defendant, victim or witness.
  2. It can only be used on a defendant aged under 18. Once a defendant turns 18 the order expires.
  3. We can argue that a defendant who is 17 is almost 18 and should be named.
  4. If they are given an Asbo we can argue they need to be named to enable the Asbo to be effective.
  5. If they have committed a violent offence such as robbery or murder they should be identified. You can argue it is in the public interest to mane them.
  6. In cases of child neglect a section 39 orders bans you from naming the parents, you can ask the judge to vary the order to allow you to names the parents but agree not to publish the names of the children.
  7. The Judicial College says: “Age alone is not sufficient to justify imposing an order a very young children cannot be harmed by publicity of which they will be unaware”. This involved babies and children under school  age.
  8. They can’t be used on children who are dead or who are not part of the proceedings.

Section 4 orders

  • These are made by court to postpone reporting. They are used to ban us from printing gone trial when another trial involving the same people is imminent.
  • They are made to ‘avoid a substantial risk of prejudice’ to a later case
  • The media have the right to challenge these orders on the grounds that it is in the public interest to report the case.
  • You can argue the gap is long enough before the next case to report the present case, also it may result in more witnesses or victims coming forward in a case.

Challenging court orders  contd.

  • All court orders can be challenged by the media apart from the orders covering victims of sex offences as they have automatic anonymity and the courts have no power to overturn it.
  • All these orders can be used to ban us from reporting elements of cases but the press
  • has the right to challenge these orders.
  • To challenge an order you must write a note to the judge to let you verbally argue your case.
  • You must also give notice to the prosecution and defence of your intention to oppose the order. The court is also supposed to give the media motive of its intention to impose an order and if this has not been done you must tell the court to give you time to prepare your argument.


Photoshop Lesson 4


Photoshop layers are like clear sheets. You can see through transparent areas of a layer to the layers below. You move a layer to position the content on the layer. You can also change the opacity of a layer to make content partially transparent.  Individual layers can be edited , repositioned and deleted without affecting the other sheets.

You use layers to perform tasks such as compositing multiple images, adding text to an image, or adding vector graphic shapes. You can apply a layer style to add a special effect such as a drop shadow or a glow.

A new image has a single layer. The number of additional layers, layer effects, and layer sets you can add to an image is limited only by your computer’s memory.

You work with layers in the Layers panel. Layer groups help you organize and manage layers. You can use groups to arrange your layers in a logical order and to reduce clutter in the Layers panel. You can nest groups within other groups. You can also use groups to apply attributes and masks to multiple layers simultaneously.


In lesson 4 we start with a single image of a pineapple:


 The end product is a postcard with text:
The  start image has 5 layers. Another is added by dragging the image of a beach onto the photo. The final image is created by editing individual layers
Double click to rename layers.
Click the eye icon to view or hide individual layers.
The order of layers on an image can be changed by selecting and moving them up or down in the Layers panel.
Individual layers can be altered without affecting the whole image. For example adding a border, changing opacity, resizing and rotating.
In Lesson 4 I have learnt to:
  • Organise artwork on layers.
  • Create, view, hide and select layers.
  • Rearrange layers to change the stacking order of artwork.
  • Apply blending modes to layers. Right click the chosen layer to duplicate. Select copied layer and choose Overlay from the Blending modes in the Layers panel. Blend the copy with original to create more vibrant image.
  • Resize and rotate layers. Chose the layer you want to work on. Edit>Free Transform. Tick the commit transform to finish.
  • Apply a gradient to a layer. Select layer>right click>select pixels.Gradient tool in Tools panel. Change foreground colour. Drag the Gradient tool from top to bottom to apply gradient.
  • Apply a filter to a later. Select layer. New Layer button, name the layer can then adjust the foreground and background colours and apply by Filter>Render>select layer
  • Add text and layer effects to a layer. Can add text or edit existing text using Horizontal Type tool  and Character panel
  • Add an adjustment layer. Can apply colour adjustments without changing the pixels e.g. hue/saturation in the Adjustments panel.
  • Add a border. Select>All   Select>Modify>Border  select number of pixels, foreground colour. Edit>Fill  OK  Deselect all.
  • Save a copy of the file with the layers flattened merge layers to reduce file size. Can no longer edit flattened image so good idea to duplicate. Image>Duplicate. Rename  then go to  Layers panel>flatten image. Save